Ice shelves are permanent floating ice sheets. They are fed by glaciers and are also attached to the land. Antarctica is home to 25 volcanoes, but only two of them are active. The first is Deception Island. The second is Mount Erebus.
Mount Erubus is a tall volcano. The tallest volcano on Antarctica is Mount Sidley which is over 14, feet in elevation. It is impressive because the valleys here are almost entirely free of any snow. Found within the McMurdo Dry Valleys is the saltiest body of water on the planet. Lake Untersee is another amazing lake in Antarctica. They are between 9. It is always frozen, although the size of the ice cap changes when bits on the edge of it melt during the summer months.
Global warming is changing polar habitats, especially in the Arctic. This means that animals like the polar bear and Arctic fox are becoming endangered. Polar habitats are located on the very top and very bottom of the Earth — the North Pole, which is called the Arctic, and the South Pole, which is the continent of Antarctica.
These are called ice caps, and they are located in the very centre of the Arctic and Antarctica. Tundra is land that only defrosts a tiny bit on the top during the summer, but below that stays frozen all the time. That always-frozen layer is called permafrost. Just like animals in hot deserts have to know how to stay as cool as possible, animals in polar habitats have to know how to stay as warm as possible. Some ways that animals in polar habitats stay warm are: Developing a thick layer of fat that keeps them cosy Having thick fur all over their body and feet Having thick layers of feathers Burrowing into the ground or into snowbanks like igloos!
Migrating south during the coldest months Hibernating sleeping during the coldest months Look at the gallery below and see if you can spot these images: Finally, they will be able to observe and record the influence of southern ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns on past climates. Frozen Records Snow is a valuable storehouse of information to a glaciologist. When a snowflake falls, it brings with it important details about the atmosphere at the time it was formed.
As it is slowly compacted and recrystallized by subsequent snowfalls, it forms a historical record. Ice cores can reveal patterns of mean air temperature. They provide evidence of major volcanic eruptions. Through analysis of the air trapped in ice bubbles, ice cores give data on the composition of the atmosphere.
To make the data meaningful, the levels in the ice core must be dated. Glaciologists use several methods, including: There is no visa requirement for Antarctica. Bring your passport however, due to shipping schedules and unpredictable weather, it is often necessary to pull into foreign ports. You will also need visas for any countries that your vessel visits en route to Antarctica.
Check with your tour operator to find out what countries you may visit. Passports are required and must be valid for at least six months beyond your departure date.
If you need a passport apply for it early. Carry a photocopy of your passports front page for identification and to change travelers checks as the passport itself should be kept aboard ship or in the hotel safe.
Note that this photocopy will also facilitate replacement should your passport be lost. Hypothermia, sunburn, dehydration, frostbite and snow blindness. Some pre-trip, first-aid reading with an outdoors or wilderness medicine focus will help you to identify and avoid the factors that lead to these conditions. As of this writing, no vaccinations are required for entry into Antarctica - and the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta has issued no advisories.
In general, be aware of the usual discomforts of travel - change of diet, sunburn, dehydration and motion sickness. If you are visiting certain parts of Asia, Africa or South America prior to joining an expedition, you may be visiting areas infected with yellow fever, in which case you will need a yellow fever inoculation.
Anticipate some rough water on the voyage. Should you be prone to motion or sea sickness, please consult with your physician on which medication is appropriate and its side effects. You would be wise to try out the dosage first on dry land.
To avert motion sickness, avoid alcohol, tobacco, excess liquids, and confined spaces. Most people feel better sitting on deck looking at the horizon or prone with eyes shut. Oddly, you will feel better with some food, such as crackers or dry toast in your stomach. Many people eat to avoid feeling sick. Remember, once you start to experience motion sickness, medications are of little help.
During the tourist season, there is about 20 hours of light, making wearing a watch almost unnecessary. When visiting most bases, clocks are set in accordance with their home countries.
Tours of this type are guided however the tour companies do not supply gear and people wishing to camp ashore must bring their own sleeping bags and foam mats, and climbers must supply their own crampons, ice axes and harnesses.
For the first time, scuba diving, including night diving, is being offered to tourists who have suitable qualifications. No decompression diving is undertaken - the dives are less than 39m ft. All divers must have at least logged dives and be certified as a PADI Rescue Diver or higher equivalent qualifications are accepted. Divers must bring all their own equipment. Clothing and Equipment Although summer temperatures can be surprisingly mild, you should expect wind, clouds and precipitation.
For your comfort and safety, avoid getting wet whether from perspiration, precipitation, unsuitable boots or sea spray. Bring wind and waterproof outer layers. Beware of tight clothing that leaves no room for trapped air, which is an excellent insulator. Wool, silk and some of the new synthetic fibers like polar fleece retain heat better than cotton.
Those who complain, "its not the cold, its the wind," are right. Wind removes the layer of air your body has heated around you to keep itself warm. A mere four m. The so-called wind chill factor measures the increase in cooling power of moving air, whether its wind that is blowing or you who are moving rapidly and, in effect, creating a wind against yourself.
Wetness also increases the loss of body heat. Air is a very poor conductor of heat, but water is an excellent one. If your skin or clothing gets wet, your body will lose heat much more rapidly. The following tips should help you be comfortable and healthfully warm in cold weather. Keep them warm and dry. For hands, mittens are better than gloves.
The icy continent surrounding the South Pole is called Antarctica. Its name means “opposite to the Arctic,” referring to the region around the North Pole. Antarctica is the fifth in size among the continents, larger than Europe and Australia.
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North America has 4/25 and Antarctica has 1/10 of the dry land. What fractional amount of the dry land is contained within the three remaining continents math apktc.ml land on Earth’s surface is represented by the seven continents. Europe has 77% of the dry land while Africa has 20%. North America has 4/25 and Antarctica has 1/10 of the dry land. Jan 05, · ☆ Need help with my Antarctica homework ☆? Basically i am doing a project on Antarctica, and i have to write about different aspects of Antarctica, such as the extreme environment, how to preserve the area for the future and recommendations for visitors and how they should behave in terms of apktc.ml: Resolved.
Overview: A Frozen Desert The continent of Antarctica contains the South Pole, and is the coldest place on Earth. Scientists from around the world have research bases and conduct experiments in a frozen, extremely inhospitable environment where the temperatures are over degrees below zero in . Antarctica is located at the South Pole; the polar bears you mention are at the North Pole. This is the Arctic Circle of Northern Alaska and Canada. If your question was about polar bear behavior in the .